Chemicals are found in every step
From the time the base materials were planted and produced, through to spinning, weaving, dyeing and finally, transporting the finished goods. Chemical waste from fabric manufacture can be seen in three main forms! Solid, Liquid, Air.
Solid waste that may be Non-Toxic
Every step of the manufacturing process short term disposables are being used, which can in turn add up to a lot of waste! Some of the Solid waste are harmless. All the packaging, fabric off-cuts, machine parts that get replaced, spools, reels, etc; these are not immediately dangerous to us or the environment and can be recycled to prevent future eco-damages.
Solid Wastes that may be Toxic
Most solid waste gets emitted during the process from fibre preparation to finishing and occasionally, bleaching. Bleach is an incredibly dangerous pollutant for our planet. When poured out into the sea, bleach kills out a large variety of plant and marine life, as well as being highly toxic to the human body when in contact with it.
Lubricants, detergents, salts and other highly acidic and corrosive substances are released into large bodies of water, contaminating them. Liquid detergent oxidizes easily can promote algal bloom which destroys much marine life as well as harming the animal kingdom.
Parts of the textile production process that exude this kind of waste include finishing, printing, dyeing, mercerizing, scouring, de-sizing and slashing/sizing.
Air Pollution in the textile industry is exuded in the form of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which are released into the atmosphere. Processes involving harmful air emissions include Slashing/sizing, de-sizing, scouring, singeing, scouring, heat setting, dyeing, printing and finishing.